基础英语语法

基础英语语法

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  • 句子结构
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句子结构

上课时间:07月13日 至 23年07月

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简  介 1. 词法,包括名词、代词、动词、形容词、副词、介词、冠词等。 2. 句法,包括句子类型、句子结构、基本句式等。
初级英语语法之句子类型
句子类型可以按句子的功能来划分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。而根据句子的结构,即根据句子简单与复杂程度以及句子间各部分的关系,英语中的句子大致可以分为以下几种类型:简单句、并列句和复合句。
功能分类:
 
陈述句
陈述句用来陈述某个事实或情况,表达某种看法。陈述句的基本语序是:主语+谓语(+其它成分)。
例如:
The sun rises from the east.
A tree falls down.
The classroom is too crowded.
Students are learning English.
 
疑问句
疑问句用来提出问题。一般分为以下几种类型:一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、反义疑问句和选择疑问句。
一般疑问句用来询问某件事是否属实,通常用yes或no来回答。
一般疑问句的基本语序通常是把原来陈述句语序里的助动词、情态动词或系动词提到主语之前,其他成分位置不变。
例如:
Do you love me?
Did he come from Beijing?
Can you speak English?
Should I call him right now?
Will you leave Beijing?
Is this ruler yours?——Yes, it is.
Are you American?——No, I’m not. I am from Britain.
特殊疑问句
特殊疑问句用来提出具体问题,如询问时间、地点、原因、方式、内容等。一般由“特殊疑问词+一般疑问句”的结构构成。常见的特殊疑问词有when,where,why,how,what等。
例如:
When do you go to school?
Where are you going?
Why do you go to school?
How do you go to school?
What’s the matter with you?
反义疑问句
例如:
You are a student, aren’t you?
She comes from American, doesn’t she?
Jim didn’t go to the cinema, did he?
Lucy can’t do her homework, can she?
 
祈使句
祈使句用来传达命令、发出请求或表达建议等。
祈使句句子结构比较特殊,通常省略主语,句子直接由谓语动词开头。
Shut up!(命令)
Stop talking!(命令)
Lend me your book, please.(请求)
Close the door,please.(请求)
Take some pills and you will feel better.(建议)
Hurry up or you miss the train.(建议)
感叹句
感叹句用来表达说话人的某种强烈的感情,如惊讶、愤怒、激动等。常见的感叹句的引导词有what和how。具体用法如下:
由what引导的感叹句,结构通常是:what+(a/an+形容词)+名词(+主谓)
例如:
What an interesting book (it is)!
What a difficult question (it is)!
What a good teacher (she is)!
What a nice man!
What a pretty girl!
由how引导的感叹句,结构通常是:how +形容词/副词+(主谓)
例如:
How difficult the problem is!
How beautiful the follower is!
How interesting the movie was!
 
What an interesting book!
What
How foolish Jim is to do so.
wha
 
 
结构分类:
简单句
我们一般把只有一个主语和一个谓语的句子叫做简单句。通常简单句有五种基本类型,即:
基本句型一:S+V (主语+谓语)
这种句型里的谓语动词通常是不及物动词。
例如:
The teacher came.
The sun rises.
The dog died.
She cried.
The bell rings.
基本句型二:S+V+P(主语+谓语动词+表语)
这种句型里的谓语动词是系动词,通常称这种结构为系表结构。表语可以是形容词、名词、副词、动词不定时,ing分词、介词短语或者表语从句。
例句;
She is beautiful.
I am hungry.
Jim was a student.
He became a doctor.
Jim is not in now.
Lucy was out.
My goal is to be a teacher.
My job is to teach you all.
My favorite hobby is swimming.
The job of a doctor is keeping everyone healthy.
My work is about teaching.
She is not at school.
It seems that you will pass the exam.
That was what I said yesterday.
That was what I did last year.
基本句型三:SVO (主语+谓语+宾语)
这是十分常见的结构。该结构里的动词是及物动词,只带一个宾语,称为单宾语动词。宾语一般有名词、代词、名词性短语或名词性从句充当。
例句:
I have a book.
We learn English.
I love you.
I met her on my way home.
Jim forgot to lock the door.
Lucy hate listening to pop music.
I can’t understand what the teacher says.
He knows well what I mean.
基本句型四:SVO iO d  (主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语)
此句型称为双宾结构:一个叫间接宾语,一个叫直接宾语。直接宾语是动作的直接对象,间接宾语则说明动作是对谁做的。
例句:
I teach you English.
She bought her mother a birthday cake.
Jim gave Lucy some money.
I will tell you the truth.
在这种结构中,间接宾语也可以用介词to或for引出,如以上句子可以变成:
I teach English to you.
She bought a birthday cake for her mother.
Jim gave some money to Lucy.
I will tell the truth to you.
 
基本句型五:SVOC(主语+谓语+宾语+宾补)
这种结构与基本句型三的区别在于:基本句型三能够完整的表达一个意思,但此结构如果没有补语,则句子的意思不完整。
充当补语的成分可以是形容词、名词、介词短语、不定式、ing分词或者ed分词。
例句:
I find the job easy.
He found the girl beautiful.
Jim left the door open.
The teacher encourage students to study hard.
A child ask his father to help him.
Will you please keep the window closed?
I found the job done.
这五种基本句型是最基本最简单的句型,其它更复杂更难理解的句型都是在此句型的基础上通过一定的规则拓展而成的,如并列句和复合句就是如此。
并列句
所谓并列句,就是通常由两个或两个以上的简单句通过一定的方式并列连接在一起的句子类型。连接简单句的成分可以是并列连词,如and,but,也可以是连接副词,如then,therefore,however等。
由and,but,or等连接的并列句:
He likes dancing and I likes singing.
Lucy loves music and she is good at it, too.
You and I are all Chinese.
Jim hates music but Lucy loves it every much.
My students promised to come but they didn’t.
You’d better work hard or you will not pass the exam.
Hurry up or you will be late for school.
复合句
在一个句子A中,如果某个(些)句子成分(如主语、宾语、同位语、表语、状语、定语等)是由一个完整的句子B来充当的,那么这样的句子就叫做复合句。句子A叫主句;只充当句子A中某个成分的句子B,相对于主句A来说属于从属的位置,因此叫从句。而根据句子B在A中充当的成分,可以把句子B具体地叫做主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、表语从句、状语从句、定语从句等。
因为主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句在句子中的功能相当于一个名词的作用,因此他们统称名词性从句,
主语从句
句子B在另外一个句子A中充当主语的成分,我们就把句子B叫主语从句。
例如:
What he did was unknown to us.
How machines make paper is easy to see.
Why Lucy is late for school is hard to explain.
Why they stole the bike is difficult for us to understand.
Whoever breaks the rules will be punished.
Whatever he said was right.
在一些含主语从句的复合句中,为了避免出现头重脚轻的情况,通常会用形式主语it代替真正的主语,而把真正的主语放到句子的末尾。
例如:
It was right whatever he said.
It is reported that many people were killed in the disaster.
It is known to all that China is a developing country.
宾语从句
句子B在另外一个句子A中充当宾语的成分,我们就把句子B叫宾语从句。
例如:
He said that he was wrong.
Lucy explained that her bike was broken on her way to school.
I know clearly that you don’t love me.
The teacher found out who broke the window.
I haven’t decided whom I should get married with.
Can you explain why you didn’t hand in your homework?
Lucy asked me how I went to school.
Jim told me when he would be at home.
Would you tell me where you are going?
和主语从句一样,有时为了句子结构的平衡,我们会使用形式宾语it来代替真正的宾语,而把宾语放在另外一个位置。
例如:
Can you explain it clearly why you are late for school?
We should make it clear that smoking is not allowed here.
 
表语从句
句子B在另外一个句子A中充当表语的成分,我们就把句子B叫表语从句。
例如:
That was what I said at the beginning of the class.
The problem is how we can get across the river without a boat.
The question is when we shall meet.
The trouble was that I didn’t have enough money to buy a house.
It seems that you don’t like the food.
The situation becomes what we have imagined.
状语从句
句子B在另外一个句子A中充当状语的成分,我们就把句子B叫状语从句。状语从句的类型很多,常见的有时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句,条件状语从句等。
时间状语从句
常见的引导时间状语从句的词有when,while,as
例如:
When I was a child, I usually read books.
While I was studying abroad, I often talked with foreigners.
As I went through the forest, I discovered a special kind of tree.
引导时间状语从句的词还可以是until,till
例如:
I will work hard until I pass the exam.
She wrote all night till the day was bright.
地点状语从句
常见的地点状语从句的引导词有where, wherever
Where there is will, there is a way.
I will pick you up where we met yesterday.
Wherever he goes, he is welcomed.
原因状语从句
常见的原因状语从句的引导词有:because,since,as,for等。
例如:
Jim was late for school because his bike was broken.
Since Lucy was ill, she felt bad.
As the restaurant has been closed, we have to go to another place for lunch.
I can’t go to bed on time for there is still lots of work to do.
结果状语从句
常见的结果状语从句的引导词有:so that,so…that,such…that
例如:
The street is very crowded, so that walking is faster than driving.
The question is so difficult that even the teacher can’t answer it right away.
She is such a beautiful girl that everybody loves her.
目的状语从句
常见的目的状语从句的引导词有:in order that, so that
例如:
He covered the hole with some leaves so that animals can’t see it.
The teacher speaks very loudly in order that he could be heard by everybody.
条件状语从句
常见的条件状语从句的引导词有:if,unless,as long as
例如;
If you don’t study hard, you will regret someday.
If I were you, I will not let her go.
I won’t lend you any money unless you promise to give it back on time.
I won’t go out unless it stops raining.
I will always be with you as long as you love me.
As long as you work hard enough, you will get what you want finally.
让步状语从句
常见的让步状语从句的引导词有:even if,even though, though,although等。
例如:
Even though he is child, he knows a lot.
Even if I understand your difficulty, I can’t help you.
Though she had prepared a lot, she failed in the exam.
Although I love you, I can’t stand your weakness.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

* 课程提供者:Jason

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